Documents to download

Changes made to DNA in human eggs, sperm or embryos (germline cells) can be passed on to future generation. The methods used to to make such changes are referred to as human germline genome editing (hGGE). This POSTnote reviews techniques available for hGGE, their safety and potential applications. It also outlines current regulation and governance of hGGE and examines issues raised by any potential future uses of hGGE.

Key Points:

  • hGGE involves making edits to DNA in egg, sperm or embryo cells
  • It has the potential to prevent serious heritable disorders but there are safety and ethical concerns over its possible use
  • There has been a reported use of hGGE resulting in the births of twin girls in China
  • In the UK, genome editing of human germline cells in research is regulated by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. It has issued a licence for a project involving such research.

UK law prohibits the use of hGGE as part of IVF treatment in women.


POSTnotes are based on literature reviews and interviews with a range of stakeholders, and are externally peer reviewed. POST would like to thank interviewees and peer reviewers* for kindly giving up their time during the preparation of this briefing, including:

  • Andrew Webster, University of York*
  • Andy Greenfield, University of Oxford*
  • Anna Middleton, Wellcome Genome Campus*
  • Anne Kerr, Leeds University
  • Catherine Drennan, Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority*
  • Charis Thompson, London School of Economics*
  • Charlotte Elves, Oxford University*
  • Dafni Moschidou, Department of Health and Social Care*
  • David King, StopDesignerBabies*
  • Emily Clarke, Genetic Disorders UK*
  • Emily Jackson, London School of Economics
  • Emma Johnson, PHG Foundation
  • Felicity Boardman, University of Warwick*
  • Fiona Coyle, University of Edinburgh
  • Gemma Wood, The Francis Crick Institution*
  • Ilke Turkmendag, Newcastle University
  • Jayne Spink, Genetic Alliance UK*
  • Jessica Bell, Oxford University*
  • Jonathan Roberts. Wellcome Genome Campus*
  • Jonny Hazell, The Royal Society
  • Julian Hitchcock, Bristows*
  • Kathy Niakan, The Francis Crick Institute*
  • Katie Hasson, Centre for Genetics and Society*
  • Laura Riley, Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority*
  • Marcy Darnovsky, Centre for Genetics and Society*
  • Mark Bale, Department of Health and Social Care*
  • Mary Herbert, Newcastle University
  • Michael Morrison, Oxford University*
  • Miranda Mourby, Oxford University*
  • Monika Preuss, Department of Health and Social Care*
  • Pauline McCormack, Newcastle University*
  • Pete Shanks, Centre for Genetics and Society*
  • Peter Mills, Nuffield Council on Bioethics*
  • Richard Milne, Wellcome Genome Campus
  • Robin Lovell-Badge, The Francis Crick Institute*
  • Rumiana Yotova, University of Cambridge*
  • Sally Cheshire, Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority *
  • Sandy Starr, Progress Educational Trust*
  • Steve Pugh, Department of Health and Social Care*
  • Tanya Brigden, PHG Foundation
  • Teodora Popa, University College London
  • Tess Whitton, University of Melbourne*
  • Tom Shakespeare, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine*

Documents to download

Related posts

  • Smart Cities

    "Smart cities" describes places that incorporate a range of technologies (especially those that collect and use data) to address economic, social, and environmental challenges. Projects usually take place in urban areas, but are also deployed in rural settings. This POSTnote looks at smart city innovation in the UK and the technologies involved. It considers the factors driving the adoption of smart city technologies, and the potential benefits, barriers and risks associated with their implementation.

    Smart Cities
  • Children’s Mental Health and the COVID-19 Pandemic

    A POSTnote describing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children's mental health. This briefing summarises the latest understanding from research about the effects on children throughout the pandemic, and the factors that increase vulnerability to poor mental health. It also reviews policy approaches that seek to protect children's mental health, with particular focus on recent initiatives to address this.

    Children’s Mental Health and the COVID-19 Pandemic
  • Early Childhood Education and Care

    Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) refers to education and childcare provided in regulated settings from birth to the start of primary school. This POSTnote summarises the evidence on the association between ECEC and children’s development in England and the key factors that affect this. It also covers the impact of government-funded ECEC places on families and the sector, and stakeholder perspectives on public policy priorities.

    Early Childhood Education and Care