This POSTbrief provides a brief overview of assisted dying, including ethical debate and stakeholder opinion. It examines how assisted dying functions within health services in countries where it is a legal option, focusing on jurisdictions where most data are available on outcomes: Belgium, Canada, the Netherlands, Oregon (United States), Switzerland and Victoria (Australia). It also covers evidence and expert opinion on key practical considerations that are raised in the context of assisted dying.
Documents to download
Childhood Obesity (518 KB , PDF)
The latest data from 2019-20 reported that at the end of primary school, 35% of children aged 10-11 years are living with overweight or obesity and 21% are living with obesity. The Government’s obesity strategy seeks to halve the prevalence of childhood obesity by 2030, with a focus on encouraging individual behaviour change, product reformulation and restricting unhealthy food marketing. Policies to address childhood obesity are also in place in devolved nations. (In the research and policy fields, the term overweight is commonly used as a noun and so is used in this way in this briefing.)
- Obesity is complex and is driven by multiple and interacting behavioural, social and environmental factors. The biggest risk factors include unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, family health and behaviour, access to food outlets and spaces for active play and exercise.
- Data from a national programme in England that tracks children’s weight – the National Child Measurement Programme – shows that increasing childhood obesity is associated with inequality. For example, children from the most deprived areas are more than twice as likely to be living with obesity as those from the least deprived areas. Children from some Black and minority ethnic communities are more likely than White British children to have a high body mass index (BMI) and this inequality is growing.
- Children with obesity are at increased risk of mental and physical health problems, some of which can persist into adulthood. This may result in longer periods of poor health and a shorter life expectancy compared with children of a healthy weight.
- Children and their parents face barriers in accessing weight management services and there is limited evidence on which interventions work best to reduce obesity.
- Many stakeholders argue that the UK Government’s current focus on individual behaviours, improving diet and restricting unhealthy food and drink marketing is insufficient to halve childhood obesity prevalence by 2030.
- Successful reductions in childhood obesity may require a broader set of policy initiatives that span educational settings, town planning and health services.
POSTnotes are based on literature reviews and interviews with a range of stakeholders and are externally peer-reviewed. POST would like to thank interviewees and peer reviewers for kindly giving up their time during the preparation of this briefing, including:
Members of the POST Board*
Professor Judith Buttriss, British Nutrition Foundation*
Caroline Cerny, Obesity Health Alliance*
Nick Crabb, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence*
Barbara Crowther, Sustain*
Monica Desai, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence*
Department for Education*
Mathew Evans, Advertising Association*
Professor Mary Fewtrell, University College London Institute of Child Health*
Amy Glass, Food and Drink Federation*
Jade Hall, Local Government Association*
James Hawkins, Food and Drink Federation
Department of Health and Social Care*
Professor Russ Jago, University of Bristol*
Theresa Moore, University of Bristol*
Dr Lisa Newson, British Psychological Society*
Dr James Nobles, University of Bristol*
Dr Dimitrios Pournaras, British Obesity and Metabolic Surgery Society*
Jill Rothwell, Sport England*
Professor Harry Rutter, University of Bath
Professor Mike Rayner, University of Oxford*
Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health*
Professor Franco Sassi, Imperial College London*
Stephanie Slater, School Food Matters*
Professor Carolyn Summerbell, University of Durham*
Andrew Taylor, Advertising Standards Association*
Dr Alison Tedstone, Public Health England*
Dolly Theis, University of Cambridge*
Julia Thrift, Town and Country Planning Association*
Professor Gareth Stratton, University of Swansea*
Professor Stanley Ulijaszek, University of Oxford*
* denotes people and organisations who acted as external reviewers of the briefing.
Documents to download
Childhood Obesity (518 KB , PDF)
Palliative and end of life care are increasingly in demand as people are living longer and with multiple long-term conditions. However, an estimated 100,000 people in the UK that could benefit from palliative care die without receiving it each year. There is substantial evidence that inequalities in access to palliative and end of life care relate to various sociodemographic factors. Experts have highlighted that access to palliative and end of life care may improve quality of life for patient and family and reduce symptom burden. This POSTnote summarises the key components of palliative and end of life care and recent changes in UK policy. It identifies inequalities and challenges to accessible provision. It also reviews evidence on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the provision of care and outlines key trends.
Medical advances mean that increasing numbers of people survive physical injury, stroke, periods of low oxygenation and severe brain infections. Some, however, are left with substantially reduced consciousness. This paper discusses the medical, ethical and commissioning challenges associated with the care of patients in vegetative and minimally conscious states, and explains the impact of recent legal judgments.