The incorporation of digital technologies in the energy sector can support progress towards key UK objectives such as achieving Net Zero emissions targets. It can also transform current methods of energy generation, transmission, regulation, and trading. This POSTnote presents an overview of key digital technologies and their main applications in the energy sector. It provides an overview of the potential benefits to using these technologies, and recent developments in this area. It describes the role of data in underpinning digital technologies in the sector, and some of the issues raised by its use. It also discusses broader challenges associated with energy sector digitalisation and measures that could help address them, including issues related to technology, regulation, and impact on consumers.
Documents to download
Sustainable cooling (367 KB , PDF)
In the UK, 20% of homes overheat, even in mild summers, and it is estimated that 2,000 heat-related deaths occur each year. Cooling keeps building occupiers comfortable and productive. It reduces risks associated with overheating, and prevents food and vaccines from spoiling. Cooling also plays a role in each of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Cooling processes often result in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These arise from the use of energy and refrigerants. Cooling already accounts for 7% of global GHG emissions.
Energy demand for cooling is rising and could match that of heating by 2060. This makes meeting climate change targets and achieving the SDGs more difficult. Sustainable cooling approaches are advocated by many stakeholders to help climate change mitigation and adaptation. They can also make cooling more affordable and accessible, and support the SDGs. In some cases they can provide co-benefits to air quality, and mental and physical health.
As COP26 Co-President, the UK Government will have the opportunity to highlight the significance of cooling with global climate stakeholders. The COP26 Product Efficiency Call to Action aims to double the efficiency of four key appliances by 2030, including air conditioners and domestic refrigeration.
Key points in this briefing include:
- Cooling contributes to public health, food security and societal productivity. It is especially important in the supply of food and medical products (e.g. vaccines) that need refrigeration.
- Avoiding or reducing heating can help to meet cooling demand, for example through building design. Several technologies exist to supply cooling, for example air conditioners. The latter often result in GHG emissions from their use of energy and ‘F-gas’ refrigerants.
- There is relatively little policy in the UK specific to cooling. Most focuses on avoiding overheating, improving device efficiency and reducing F-gas use. Policy changes around building design, green infrastructure and the supply of refrigerated products can make cooling in the UK more sustainable.
- The UK is part of international efforts to reduce the use of refrigerants that are strong GHGs.
- Cooling is key to sustainable development, but access to it is unequal. Women and less affluent groups are most affected, particularly in the Global South. The UK funds sustainable cooling projects abroad through overseas aid.
POSTnotes are based on literature reviews and interviews with a range of stakeholders and are externally peer-reviewed. POST would like to thank interviewees and peer reviewers for kindly giving up their time during the preparation of this briefing, including:
- Michael Swainson, BRE Group *
- Paul Huggins, Carbon Trust *
- Rachel Hay, Climate Change Committee *
- Gemma Holmes, Climate Change Committee *
- Shane Brennan, Cold Chain Federation *
- Tom Southall, Cold Chain Federation *
- Sophie Loran, Cool Coalition *
- Lily Riahi, Cool Coalition *
- Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy International Climate Finance team *
- Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs *
- Dr Huashan Bao, Durham University
- Larissa Gross, E3G *
- Pedro Guertler, E3G *
- Dr Sindra Sharma-Khushal, E3G *
- Ross Lowrie, Environment Agency
- Holly Schofield, Environment Agency
- Sophie Geoghegan, Environmental Investigation Agency *
- Fionnuala Walravens, Environmental Investigation Agency *
- Chris Davidson, Ground Source Heat Pump Association
- John Findlay, Ground Source Heat Pump Association
- Dr Tim Fox, Independent Consultant *
- Dan Hamza-Goodacre, Kigali Cooling Efficiency Programme *
- Prof Judith Evans, London South Bank University *
- Prof Graeme Maidment, London South Bank University *
- Dr Ben Roberts, Loughborough University *
- Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government *
- Ian Tansley, Sure Chill
- Rhea Mukerjee, Sustain Labs Paris
- Edgar Segovia Leon, Teesside University
- Dr Jenny Crawley, University College London
- Prof Yulong Ding, University of Birmingham *
- Prof Toby Peters, University of Birmingham *
- Dr Xinfang Wang, University of Birmingham *
- Charlotte Brown, University of Manchester Tyndall Centre
- Prof Saffa Riffat, University of Nottingham
- Dr Radhika Khosla, University of Oxford Future of Cooling Programme *
- Dr Antonella Mazzone, University of Oxford Future of Cooling Programme *
- Dr Nicole Miranda, University of Oxford Future of Cooling Programme *
- Dr Philipp Trotter, University of Oxford Future of Cooling Programme *
- Stephen Gill, World Refrigeration Day secretariat *
- Members of the POST Board *
* denotes contributors who acted as external reviewers for the briefing
Documents to download
Sustainable cooling (367 KB , PDF)
Space-based assets (satellites and the terrestrial ground stations that communicate with them) provide critical support to military and civilian operations. They are vulnerable to unintentional damage and disruption, and to deliberate attack. This POSTnote outlines how the UK uses and accesses satellites, potential risks to satellites, and approaches to mitigation.
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