Scientific understanding of the immune response to COVID-19 is incomplete but numerous research studies are underway. There is little evidence to suggest that exposure to other coronaviruses can confer protection against SARS-CoV-2. There is very good evidence that it takes at least 14 days to develop an antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. A significant proportion of people exposed to SARS-CoV-2 make very little or no detectable antibodies at all. There is insufficient scientific evidence to know whether the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies confers protection from subsequent infections, and if so at what level. The duration of immunity is not clear; long-term monitoring of this in large studies will be needed to provide clarity. Antibodies are only one part of the immune response to infection, which is complex, and understanding the overall immune response to COVID-19 is very important. Additional high-quality research evidence is needed in order to indicate the likelihood of future outbreaks of disease, how often and when they are likely to occur, and to inform the development of any future immunisation programmes.

There is very good evidence that children who have COVID-19 are much less likely to develop severe symptoms and much less likely to die from the disease than people in older age groups. There is good evidence that children under 13 years old are less susceptible to developing clinical disease (this means having recognisable signs and symptoms) than adults. It is not yet clear whether this is also the case for older children. There is some research indicating that children aged 13 years and under may be less susceptible to infection than adults, but the confidence in this evidence is low. There is insufficient research to say whether this is the case for older children. There is some evidence to suggest that children transmit the virus less than adults, but more research is needed to reduce uncertainty. Pregnant women are not more likely to contract the virus. Transmission of the virus from mothers to babies is low. Some babies born to COVID-19 positive mothers will develop an infection; these babies are not at increased risk of severe disease.

The UK Government announced its approach to exiting lockdown on 10 May in a statement by the Prime Minister and in a report published on 11 May. Current models suggest that 5.38% of the UK population has been infected with COVID-19. To lift restrictions the World Health Organisation has outlined key criteria that should guide decision making, such as ensuring that health systems can identify, isolate, test, trace contacts and quarantine COVID-19 cases. Several countries have eased measures with varying success including, Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and China. Other countries such as Sweden and South Korea have taken alternative routes.

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    Initial reports suggest we should expect a sharp rise in levels of depression, anxiety and loneliness. The pandemic could have implications for those already suffering from addiction, OCD, and eating disorders. Concerns have prompted a number of initiatives supporting mental well-being. These include guidance from the World Health Organisation (WHO) and Public Health England (PHE), resources from the devolved administrations, and formation of the Help Hub, a service set up by volunteer therapists.

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    Following measures by the UK Government, a survey was conducted on the 18 of March to assess public attitudes. 77% of respondents were worried about an outbreak and while 93% reported taking protective measures, only 50% were avoiding social events, 36% were avoiding public transport, and 31% were avoiding going out. A study on the global impact of COVID-19 estimated that an unmitigated epidemic would infect 7.0 billion out of the world’s 7.8 billion people. This would lead to 40 million global deaths in 2020. The latest modeling estimates that as of 27 about 4% of the population of the UK has been infected with coronavirus.The UK has strengthened capacity of the NHS to deal with COVID-19 by building field hospitals, but there is still a shortage of intensive care beds and intensive care nurses. Various testing strategies are being explored for healthcare workers and the wider community. Testing each case and their contacts might require as many as 60,000 tests per day.

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    This article goes over the types of masks that exist. It explores how effective are they at preventing transmission of coronavirus, according to the latest research. It reviews the advice on masks and face coverings from public health organisations, and presents official guidance from several nations. This is part of our rapid response content on COVID-19. You can view all our reporting on this topic under COVID-19.

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    According to a recent study from Ofcom, 46% of respondents have encountered false or misleading coronavirus information since the lockdown. Most cases of misinformation are found on social media. Misinformation can lead to public mistrust, endangerment of public health, as well as hate crime and exploitation. Different approaches are being implemented to fight misinformation including content moderation, myth-busting, and a focus on education.

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    Who is working on a vaccine to prevent COVID-19 (coronavirus disease)? When might a COVID-19 vaccine become available? This is part of our rapid response content on COVID-19. You can view all our reporting on this topic under COVID-19. This article will be updated as the research progresses.

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    What can Wuhan tell us about the COVID-19 pandemic? How might different suppression and mitigation strategies affect coronavirus transmission? This breakdown of the Imperial College models is part of our rapid response content on COVID-19. This article will be updated as the research progresses.

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    On 20th March, the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE) released the evidence behind the government response to Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This series of short articles summarises these 32 documents. You can view all our reporting on this topic under COVID-19. This article goes over the research used to develop early COVID-19 models which in turn informed the thinking of SAGE. High profile models from Imperial College London will be detailed in Part 2.

  • Rapid response

    On 20th March, the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE) released the evidence behind the government response to Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This series of short articles summarises these 32 documents. You can view all our reporting on this topic under COVID-19. This article covers the effectiveness of measures such as school closures and mass gathering. It goes over different scenarios and what models predict for the UK.

  • Rapid response

    On 20th March, the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE) released the evidence behind the government response to Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This series of short articles summarises these 32 documents. You can view all our reporting on this topic under COVID-19. This article goes over insights from behavioural science such as the risk of public disorder and adherence to household isolation.

  • Rapid response

    On 20th March, the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE) released the evidence behind the government response to Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This series of short articles summarises these 32 documents. You can view all our reporting on this topic under COVID-19. This article goes over proposed non-pharmaceutical interventions. These include social and behavioural interventions such as school closures, home isolation, quarantine, and social distancing. This article summarises 4 SAGE reports.

  • Rapid response

    On 20th March, the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE) released the evidence behind the government response to Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This series of short articles summarises these 32 documents. You can view all our reporting on this topic under COVID-19. This article goes over the key epidemiological terms used in the COVID-19 response.

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