This POSTnote outlines the key components of Problem-solving courts (PSC) and summarises the key outcomes of different PSC. It concludes with highlighting the opportunities and challenges to implementation of PSC across England and Wales.
Disability occurs in many different forms. An invisible disability, or non-visible disability, is an impairment or health condition that is not immediately obvious. This POSTnote provides an overview of invisible disability in the UK. It outlines types of invisible disabilities and relevant legislation and policy. It also discusses the experiences of adults with invisible disabilities, and strategies aimed at increasing access and inclusion for adults with invisible disabilities, focusing on employment, and higher and further education.
Genome editing, also known as gene editing, encompasses a broad range of techniques that allows targeted changes in the DNA of animals (and plants). The Genetic Technology (Precision Breeding) Bill 2022 -2023, due for Second Reading in the House of Lords on 21 November 2022, intends to change the regulatory definition of certain genome-edited animals.
The UK Government has published a draft Mental Health Bill to amend the Mental Health Act (MHA) 1983. This POSTnote covers how and when the MHA is used to treat children and young people aged under 18 (CYP) and stakeholder perspectives on the potential impact of the reforms on CYP.
A POSTnote giving an overview of the scientific and ethical debate around policies regulating the participation of female athletes with differences in sex development (DSDs) in the female category of elite, professional sports.
This POSTbrief provides a brief overview of assisted dying, including ethical debate and stakeholder opinion. It examines how assisted dying functions within health services in countries where it is a legal option, focusing on jurisdictions where most data are available on outcomes: Belgium, Canada, the Netherlands, Oregon (United States), Switzerland and Victoria (Australia). It also covers evidence and expert opinion on key practical considerations that are raised in the context of assisted dying.
Palliative and end of life care are increasingly in demand as people are living longer and with multiple long-term conditions. However, an estimated 100,000 people in the UK that could benefit from palliative care die without receiving it each year. There is substantial evidence that inequalities in access to palliative and end of life care relate to various sociodemographic factors. Experts have highlighted that access to palliative and end of life care may improve quality of life for patient and family and reduce symptom burden. This POSTnote summarises the key components of palliative and end of life care and recent changes in UK policy. It identifies inequalities and challenges to accessible provision. It also reviews evidence on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the provision of care and outlines key trends.
Medical advances mean that increasing numbers of people survive physical injury, stroke, periods of low oxygenation and severe brain infections. Some, however, are left with substantially reduced consciousness. This paper discusses the medical, ethical and commissioning challenges associated with the care of patients in vegetative and minimally conscious states, and explains the impact of recent legal judgments.
Research suggests that the threat from invasive non-native species (INNS) is growing. Biological invasions by INNS harm native species and habitats and can have economic impacts. Biosecurity measures can be adopted to prevent the introduction and spread of INNS. This POSTnote summarises the drivers and impacts of INNS and the measures needed to meet national and international environmental targets.